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Casa Baeza Group

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Miles Brown
Miles Brown

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Rabies is a neglected zoonosis that causes more than 55,000 annual human deaths worldwide, mostly in Asia and Africa, where dogs are the major reservoir responsible for transmission to humans in the region [35]. Mass dog vaccination has proved to be the most cost-effective measure for rabies control [9, 18]. Vaccine development for dogs is still the focus of applied research, especially the development of vaccines for free-ranging dogs. Oral vaccination is one milestone for the prevention and control of wildlife rabies in North America, Europe, Israel, and elsewhere [22, 36]. Currently, two recombinant vaccines are being used for oral rabies vaccination in wildlife. The first recombinant vaccine, V-RG, developed more than two decades ago, is based on vaccinia virus expressing the glycoprotein (G) from the rabies virus (RABV) vaccine strain ERA [3, 15, 37]. V-RG was licensed conditionally in 1995 in the USA for oral vaccination of wildlife. The success of V-RG in rabies control comes with limitations, such as inducing insufficient virus neutralizing antibody (VNA) responses in skunks or dogs by single-dose vaccination [4, 11, 27]. Moreover, human vaccinia virus infections have been associated with contact with V-RG vaccine baits [5]. The second recombinant vaccine, AdRG1.03 (trade name ONRAB) based on human adenovirus type 5, has been approved for field trials in Canada since 2006 and is being tested in the USA [16, 17]. AdRG1.03 is replication-competent and can be re-isolated from excretions from vaccinated animals. The possible public-health impact of releasing this live virus into the environment is at an early stage of evaluation [16, 17, 22]. Of note, both V-RG and AdRG1.03 recombinants were constructed using the G gene from the vaccine strain ERA. Similar problems were also observed with the previous construct, CAV-E3Δ-CGS, which was based on replication-competent canine adenovirus type 2 expressing the G gene from vaccine strain SRV9 [12].




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During the 2016 LCK Summer Split, SK Telecom started the season strong with a 5-0 score in series and 10-0 game score. However, they started dropping sets to lower ranked teams, notably the Afreeca Freecs, who they failed to win even a single game against the entire season. With a 13-5 scoreline in series, SKT placed second in the round robin, beating KT Rolster via game score tiebreaker. However, during the 2016 LCK Summer Playoffs, they met KT Rolster in the semifinals, where they were reverse swept 3-2 after going up 2-0 in the first two games. This gave them third place for the summer split. Combined with their first place spring finish, as well as the victory of the ROX Tigers over KT Rolster, SKT qualified to the 2016 Season World Championship on points as Korea's second seed.


Cells and tissues were lysed in RIPA buffer with complete EDTA-free protease inhibitor cocktail (Roche, Mannheim, Germany). Equivalent amounts of protein were subjected to SDS-PAGE and transferred to PVDF membranes. The membranes were probed with specific antibodies. Proteins were visualized with an enhanced chemiluminescence reagent (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA). Because the anti-LC3 antibodies react preferentially with LC3-II and less so with LC3-I, LC3-II expression levels were normalized to GAPDH rather than LC3-I [15].


Quantification was carried out by Cytome Technologies (Upper Heyford, UK) as follows: purified protein mixtures were denatured and trypsinized using the FASP protocol to ensure efficient digestions and optimal recovery49. Peptide digests were analysed using a QExactive mass spectrometer (Thermo Scientific). Proteins were identified using the Trans Proteomics Pipeline and relative protein abundance was measured by label-free quantitative mass spectrometry using the Normalized Spectral Index SIN (ref. 50). The three-way comparison was carried out by using pooled data from the results of the individual analyses of each duplicate or quadruplicate vector preparation. The initial set of common proteins were retrospectively filtered by removing hits that varied by more than four-fold between replicate sample analyses of each vector type. The COX-2 protein data were manually included in the final ranking list, because it was not a common protein (not present in EIAV-GFP preparations). 350c69d7ab


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